2011년 8월 9일 화요일

Course Objectives

Standards for Korean Language Learning
A collaborative project of the Korean National Standards Task Force and
the American Association of Teachers of Korean (AATK)
June 2011

Communication: Goal 1

Communication is a social act through which various social actions are carried out, language being the primary tool. Learning a language, therefore, must be more than gaining knowledge of its linguistic structure: the successful language learner is also communicatively competent.  In this section, we identify grade level-appropriate communicative social actions as well as the linguistic structures required to carry them out.
The basic social actions one engages in everyday include greetings, giving and following basic classroom and other instructions, and describing or reporting things, events, and situations in immediate needs and surroundings, such as family, personal preferences, and daily routines. More advanced social actions include telling stories and personal experiences, and expressing one’s opinions, attitudes, or feelings and emotions—social acts that extend beyond one’s immediate needs and environment. At the highest level, the language learner would engage in analyzing, discussing, and debating abstract ideas and social issues as well as comprehending various literary and non-literary genres, such as prose, novels, newspaper articles, movies, and public forums.
In carrying out these social actions at any level, all three modes of communication are involved: interpersonal, interpretive, and presentational. For each of these communicative modes, Sample Progress Indicators will be specified, with regard to what social actions and linguistic features should be manifested in each grade level. Of particular note are the ‘honorific forms’ and its context-sensitive “speech styles” of the Korean language.  Because the language attends to the speaker’s relationships to the addressee and to the referent, student at all levels must develop an understanding of how to encode these socio-cultural relationship in linguistically appropriate ways, e.g., by  determines which ‘honorific’ markers need to be utilized in a given context. To this end, the Sample Progress Indicators also make explicit  reference to critical differentiation with regard to the communication setting of a linguistic act:  formal vs. informal,  written vs. spoken, etc.  Because the linguistic structures of Korean are so intertwined with social actions and situations, students must learn how to map particular social actions or situations onto the appropriate linguistic forms, especially honorific forms and sentence-final markers that convey information about speech style. 

STANDARD 1.1:
Students engage in conversations, provide and obtain information, express feelings and emotions, and exchange opinions.

Sample Progress Indicators, Grade 4 [LTKO 1A/1B]

·      Students use and respond to simple speech acts such as greetings, leave takings, and giving thanks in culturally acceptable ways using age-appropriate speech levels and styles.
Example: 안녕/안녕하세요? /안녕히 가세요. 고마워/감사합니다. 동안 어떻게 지내셨어요? 아주 지냈어요.

·      Students ask for clarification and/or express confusion in culturally appropriate ways.
Example: 모르겠어요. 다시 한번 말씀해 주세요. 알겠습니다. 선생님 질문이 있는데요.

·      Students give and follow simple instructions in order to participate in age-appropriate classroom and/or cultural activities, such as performing simple Korean dances, singing songs, and making Korean crafts like paper folding or making the Korean flag.
Example: 책을 펴세요. 종이를 접으세요. 가위로 자르세요. 부채춤을 때는 부채를 펴서 손가락으로 잡습니다

·      Students introduce themselves by giving and/or asking for basic personal information, such as name, birthday, phone number, school year, and ethnicity/nationality. 
Example:
이름은 ___입니다. 저는 ___ 초등학교 ___입니다. 저는 ____ 삽니다. 생일은 ___ ___일입니다.

·      Students ask and answer questions concerning their daily routines, family, school events, and celebrations.
Example: 집이 어디예요? 생일이 언제예요? 동생 있어요? 추석은 재미있게 보냈어요? 교실에서 윷놀이를 했어요.

·      Students express their likes and dislikes regarding various objects, topics, people and events in their daily environment.
Example: 나는 김치를 좋아해요/싫어해요

·      Students identify and describe orally and in writing age-appropriate Korean cultural products, tangible and intangible, and practices (e.g., Korean candy, hanbok, kimch’i, rice cake, macramé (매듭), t’aekwŏndo, Korean fan dance and Korean bowing).
       Example: 설날, 세배, 세뱃돈, 떡국, 윷놀이, 한복, 저고리, 치마, 바지, 마고자, 추석, 한가위, 송편, 태권도, 부채춤, 탈춤, 무궁화, 보름달,  

Sample Progress Indicators, Grade 8 [LTKO 1B/1C]

·      Students follow and give directions in age-appropriate classroom activities, such as making greeting cards and engaging in map reading activities and cultural games. 
Example: 윷놀이, 가위바위보, 공기놀이, 연날리기, 사물놀이

·      Students share their personal stories and memorable experiences (e.g., school talent show, family trips, summer vacations, and holiday gathering) with their peers/ Korean native speakers.
Example: 한국연수프로그램, 수학여행, 가족여행, 다문화의 , 추석파티, 설날

·      Students express opinions and preferences about people, events, and everyday activities through simple contrast and comparison, on topics such as favorite celebrities, foods, movies and sports.

·      Students use Korean to ask for goods, services or information on personal interests through oral communication, writing or the Internet.

·      Students work as a class or in small groups to discuss, propose and develop school or community-related activities, such as planning a Korean booth for a school event.

·      Students use a variety of culturally appropriate non-verbal communication strategies, such as making hand gestures and maintaining respectable gaze when interacting with elders. 

·      Students use communication strategies, such as paraphrasing when they cannot express their intended message adequately.  

Sample Progress Indicators, Grade 12 [LTKO 2ABC]

·      Students describe and discuss with peers their personal and academic lives, such as making friends with people of different backgrounds, going to college, and choosing majors.

·      Students use multiple modes of communication, conventional or digital, such as letters, text messaging and social network websites, about topics of interests with peers and teachers.

·      Students express and respond to opinions on personal and social issues, such as body image, fashion, family relations, peer pressure and multiculturalism.

·      Students share opinions, preferences, and critiques about popular culture, competitive sports, and arts including Korean TV dramas, K-pop music, and soccer

·      Students develop and propose solutions to issues and problems that are of concern to members of their own or Korean communities.

·      Students gather and compare and contrast information through a variety of sources on topics of interest to support their opinions and perspectives.

Sample Progress Indicators, Grade 16 [LTKO 3]

  • Students discuss orally and/or in writing significant events and issues on Korea, such as political and economic relationships, division of the Korean peninsula, and modernization of Korea. 

  • Students discuss orally and/or in writing world issues that are being studied in disciplines, such as social sciences business, law, medicine, and literature.

  • Students share substantiated understanding, personal interpretation, and reaction to literary and non-literary texts including best-selling novels and newspaper articles.

  • Students work individually or in groups to develop and propose solutions to issues and problems that are of concern to members of society, such as educational system, urban planning, environmental issues, and Korea emerging as a multi-cultural society.

  • Students debate and exchange individual perspectives and opinions on a variety of contemporary and historical issues, such as immigration, healthcare, social welfare, and territorial disputes among Asian countries.

  • Students prepare and share information appropriate for professional contexts, such as job interviews, internship and scholarship applications and running for an office of a student organization.

Standard 1.2                       
Students understand and interpret written and spoken Korean on a variety of topics.

Sample Progress Indicators, Grade 4 [LTKO 1A/1B]

·     Students identify main characters and storyline in spoken and written children narratives, such as recognizing animals in a folktale and describing characters of a familiar story.
Example: 소가 게으름뱅이, 콩쥐팥쥐, 흥부놀부, 심청전, 해와 , 의좋은 형제 
  • Students react appropriately to information in brief announcements, written messages, calendars, or lists of school activities (e.g., daily class schedules, morning announcements, memo from the teacher on upcoming school events).

  • Students identify main themes in various age-appropriate visual media (e.g., animation, picture illustrated books, magazines, posters and advertisements).

  • Students interpret gestures, intonation, and other visual or auditory cues to understand spoken language, such as understanding hand gestures of calling people, and identifying intonations in statements, questions, and commands.

Sample Progress Indicators, Grade 8 [LTKO 1B/1C]

·      Students identify main ideas and list key information in conversations and stories in audiovisual and print media on age-appropriate topics of interest

·      Students react appropriately to announcements and messages connected to their daily life (e.g., classroom announcements, electronic messages and bulletin postings).

·      Students recognize Korean historical figures, events, and inventions presented in various materials. 
Example: 세종대왕, 이순신 장군, 온돌 

·      Students show some awareness of differences between native Korean words, Sino-Korean words, and loan words through context and linguistic component.


Sample Progress Indicators, Grade 12 [LTKO 2ABC]

·      Students demonstrate comprehension of significant details of spoken and written Korean such as media postings related to popular culture.

·      Students chart information on plots, characters, themes, and underlying perspectives of cultural texts, such as folktales, songs, proverbs, and short stories.
Example: 흥부와 놀부, 효녀 심청, 장화홍련전

·      Students read and outline key elements from accounts of historical events and biographies of key Korean historical figures.
Example: 삼국통일, 장보고, 세종대왕, 한글창제, 장영실, 이순신, 임진왜란, 신사임당, 유관순 

Sample Progress Indicators, Grade 16 [LTKO 3]

  • Students demonstrate ability to identify main ideas, significant details and implications of the views presented in live or recorded discussions and lectures on Korea (e.g., Confucianism in Korea, the Korea-U.S. relationship, growing ethnic diversity).
  • Students analyze in detail the main plots, subplots, the roles, and significance of characters in selected literary texts.
  • Students demonstrate an understanding of nuances in various expressions of refusal, apology, and gratitude in both formal and informal settings.
  • Students show an increasing understanding of cultural meanings embedded in products of Korean culture. Example: 시조, 산수화, 풍속화, 판소리, 탈춤
  • Students interpret and evaluate the theoretical and/or political perspectives in non-fiction writing in print and digital media on contemporary topics of significance to Korean speaking populations.
  • Students conduct research and analyze information from library and electronic resources (e.g., online databases in Korean).

Standard 1.3                       
Students present information, concepts, and ideas to an audience of listeners or 
readers on a variety of topics.

Sample Progress Indicators, Grade 4 [LTKO 1A/1B]

·      Students give simple oral presentations (e.g., show-and-tell, report) about people, activities, or events in their daily lives (e.g., school field trips, family vacation, and birthday parties).

·      Students make illustrated stories (e.g., big books, posters, dioramas, cartoons) to share with the class about people, activities, or events in their environment.   

·      Students perform or recite age-appropriate songs, short plays, and poems commonly known in Korean communities.
Example: 흥부놀부, 청개구리, 소가 게으름뱅이, 해와 , 의좋은 형제

·      Students create greeting cards or letters for special holidays and occasions such as Teacher Appreciation Day, Parents’ Day, Lunar New Year’s Day.

Sample Progress Indicators, Grade 8 [LTKO 1B/1C]

·      Students present skits, recite selected poems, tell anecdotes, and perform songs in Korean at school events.

·      Students write stories or reports about personal experiences, events, or other school subjects for journals, school newsletters or blogs to share with peers or Korean speakers.

·      Students summarize the plot and describe the characters in age-appropriate literary works, such as poems, short stories, folk tales, and anecdotes.

·      Students write or report about products and/or practices of their own culture or Korean culture (e.g., birthdays, New Year celebration, Korean Harvest Celebration).

Sample Progress Indicators, Grade 12 [LTKO 2ABC]

·    Students describe procedures for activities, such as Korean cooking or rules for games.  

·    Students create and perform a skit adapted from Korean traditional folktales and stories as a live performance or in video production.

·    Students produce narratives, short stories, or poetry based on historical events or current affairs of Korean-speaking communities.

  • Students summarize orally or in writing the content of articles or documentary films intended for native speakers of Korean, to discuss historical or contemporary issues (e.g., Korea’s rapid economic growth, separation of family members in North and South Korea, Korean athletes' successes in international stages).
·      Students write essays, reviews, or newspaper articles for student publication expressing opinions on school-related issues (e.g., home-coming dance, spirit week events, dress codes, students’ misconduct such as bullying and harassment, etc).

Sample Progress Indicators, Grade 16 [LTKO 3]

  • Students perform plays based on Korean classics or recite poems from traditional and modern literary works.
  • Students present orally or in writing a critical review on expressive products of Korean culture, such as various literary genres, fine arts, or popular culture.
  • Students interpret and synthesize information (e.g., research articles, documentary films, interviews, field notes) and give a presentation on Korea-related political and social issues (e.g., trade disputes and issues, the presence of U.S. forces in Korean peninsula, Korean education system).
  • Students write a research-based paper in which they provide a detailed theoretical basis that supports their thesis.

Cultures: Goal 2

The Cultures Goal emphasizes that learning a language fundamentally entails (a) acquiring the language as a means of coming to understand the culture in which the target language is used and (b) developing an authentic understanding of the target culture as an essential part of the language learning process. Given how vastly different Korean culture is compared to those in the Western world, it is becoming more urgent within the Korean language curriculum to help students understand the often unique perspectives of Korean culture through learning about practices and products in traditional and contemporary Korean society.  As such, students can work toward true proficiency in Korean by understanding, appreciating, and applying the ideas, meanings, and values manifested in both tangible and intangible Korean cultural products and practices.   

Standard 2.1                       
Students demonstrate an understanding of the relationship between the practices and perspectives of Korean culture.

Sample Progress Indicators, Grade 4 [LTKO 1A/1B]

  • Students use appropriate expressions and gestures for greetings, leave taking, and common classroom interactions (e.g., bowing, politely asking for permission).

  • Students demonstrate an awareness of the use of age-appropriate speech styles of the Korean language.
    Example:
    안녕하세요 vs.안녕, 가세요 vs.

  • Students participate in age-appropriate cultural activities (e.g., holiday celebrations, school field trips, games) and show an understanding of the cultural practices and products used in each activity.
    Example:
    세배, 세뱃돈, 한복, 설빔, 차례, 떡국, 소풍, 김밥, 윷놀이, 제기차기

  • Students recognize and understand Korean daily practices (e.g., removing shoes before entering homes, sitting and sleeping on the floor, bowing to elders).

  • Students demonstrate patterns of behaviors or interactions in various settings, such as school, family, and community (e.g., using sibling terms instead of names to address or refer to older peers, using two hands for giving to and receiving from elders).

Sample Progress Indicators, Grade 8 [LTKO 1B/1C]

  • Students show an understanding of the meanings and symbols of Korean holiday customs.
    Example:
    덕담, 제사, 성묘

  • Students understand and demonstrate culturally appropriate Korean table manners (e.g., appropriately using spoons and chopsticks, waiting until elders begin eating).

  • Students show an understanding of the cultural usage of kinship terms and titles to address and refer to people. 
    Example:
    할머니, 할아버지, 아줌마, 아저씨, 선생님, 사모님

  • Students use and understand Korean proverbs and idiomatic expressions commonly appearing in everyday interactions, and demonstrate an awareness of the basic significance of such proverbs and expressions.
    Example:
    누워서 먹기, 손꼽아 기다리다, 하늘의 따기


Sample Progress Indicators, Grade 12 [LTKO 2ABC]

  • Students demonstrate an understanding of Korean cultural practices related to birthday milestones and different ways to count age. Example: , 환갑, , 음력, 학번

  • Students show an understanding of traditional and contemporary marriage customs in Korea, and are able to articulate differences, similarities, and meanings contained in each set of customs. 
    Example:
    맞선, 소개팅, 중매결혼, 연애결혼
·     Students discuss unique aspects of the Korean language, such as idiomatic expressions (e.g., four-syllable proverbs), by analyzing the socio-historical origin, modern-day usage, and meanings of such expressions.
Example: 사자성어-상부상조, 일석이조, 새옹지마, 관용표현-코가 높다, 발이 넓다

  • Students observe and discuss Korean superstitions and their manifestation in the lives of Korean people (e.g., eating traditional taffy on college examination day, avoiding writing one’s name in red), with an emphasis on the meanings behind these superstitions. 

  • Students identify, examine, and discuss the experiences and elements of the social life of high school students in Korea (e.g., school trips, Korean’s zealous emphasis on education manifested in private academic institutes and college entrance examinations).

Sample Progress Indicators, Grade 16 [LTKO 3]

  • Students identify and analyze Korean cultural perspectives reflected in historical, political, and religious events and national holidays.
    Example:
    한글날, 삼일절, 광복절, 석가탄신일, 성탄절
  • Students analyze, discuss, and evaluate Korean traditional cultural practices and their influences on contemporary social interactions (e.g., weddings, funerals, business culture).
  • Students analyze, discuss, and demonstrate an understanding of connections between cultural perspectives and socially approved behavioral patterns within Korean cultural contexts (e.g., accepting and declining compliments, filial piety, business etiquette).

Standard 2.2          
Students demonstrate an understanding of the relationship between the products and perspectives of Korean culture.

Sample Progress Indicators, Grade 4 [LTKO 1A/1B]

  • Students identify tangible products of Korean culture (e.g., toys, clothing, household items, food)
    Example:
    공기, 한복, 숟가락, 젓가락, 김치, 불고기, 떡볶이

  • Students identify and familiarize themselves with products of Korean culture, such as children’s stories, songs, and dances.
    Example:
    청개구리 이야기, 산토끼, 부채춤

  • Students participate in making age-appropriate Korean artwork, crafts, and simple food.
    Example:
    종이탈, , 한복 접기, 송편, 김밥

  • Students participate in age-appropriate Korean traditional games and sports.
    Example:
    윷놀이, 제기차기, 무궁화 꽃이 피었습니다, 태권도

Sample Progress Indicators, Grade 8 [LTKO 1B/1C]

  • Students experience genres of Korean music and performances, from modern and traditional perspectives.
    Example:
    민요, 사물놀이, K-pop

  • Students participate in Korean traditional games and sports.
    Example:
    닭싸움, 말타기, 고무줄 놀이, 숫자나 말로 하는 놀이 (삼육구, 쥐를 잡자)

  • Students explore cultural perspectives through Korean traditional and contemporary arts and crafts.
    Example:
    풍속화, 매듭, 붓글씨

  • Students work with materials about internationally known Korean athletes, musicians, and artists, identify their specific talents, and discuss the types of influences of Korean culture that these celebrities bring to their fields.
    Example:
    김연아, 박찬호, , 백남준

  • Students identify tangible and intangible products of Korean culture, such as historical monuments and social and religious institutions. Example: 해인사, 명동성당, 경복궁, 남대문, 국회의사당

Sample Progress Indicators, Grade 12 [LTKO 2ABC]

  • Students analyze Korean arts including pottery and traditional paintings and identify and analyze the various symbolic components in these products.
    Example:
    백자, 청자, 산수화, 민화

  • Students experience and explore concrete products of Korean culture that reflect daily life, such as food, dwelling, and leisure activities, and discuss the elements of Korean culture that are represented in daily life.  
    Example:
    한국의 발효 음식 (간장, 된장, 김치), 한옥과 온돌, 노래방, 찜질방, 등산

  • Students experience and discuss expressive products of Korean culture including Korean film, literature, and performance and explore ways in which these products reflect Korean people’s lifestyles, beliefs, and values.
    Example:
    판소리, B-boy, 난타

  • Students identify and understand themes, ideas, and perspectives related to the products of Korean culture.
    Example:
    충효사상, 무속신앙, (), (), 눈치, 체면

  • Students identify and understand the uniqueness of Korean culture that receives worldwide recognition. Example: 한글, 팔만대장경, 거북선, 종묘, 석굴암, 불국사, 창덕궁


Sample Progress Indicators, Grade 16 [LTKO 3]

  • Students identify, discuss, and analyze intangible products of Korean culture, such as social, religious, economic, and political institutions, and explore relationships among these institutions and perspectives of Korean culture (e.g., temples, churches, palaces, National Assembly, universities). 
  • Students experience, analyze, and critique expressive products of Korean culture, including Korean film, literature, arts and performance and identify the elements of Korean culture that are reflected in these products.
    Example:
    시조, 국악, 임권택 영화, JSA 
  • Students become familiar with social, political, and cultural issues discussed at various media (e.g., commercials, documentaries, newspaper articles, TV programs, and websites).
  • Students analyze instances of public media in Korea (e.g., news  broadcasts, morning talk shows, television commercials, Blue Dragon Awards, political speeches) and identify the elements of culture that are reflected within them, including gender/social roles, speech styles, rhetorical organization (e.g., directness vs. indirectness), and value systems (e.g., collectivism vs. individualism).

Connections: Goal 3

The Connections Goal encourages students to use their Korean communication skills (developed under the Communication Goal) and their cultural understanding of the world (developed under the Cultures Goal) as a way of extending their knowledge into new domains.  To this end, the Connections Goal has been established to provide students with opportunities for interdisciplinary experiences in areas of the curriculum that lie beyond the traditional language-learning classroom.  The broad range of activities related to this goal help students identify and use information available to them in Korean, thereby encouraging them to appreciate the utility of the language in more and more contexts.  In addition to obtaining information from human resources (e.g., instructors, peers, family members), students are encouraged to pursue their interests by consulting Korean-language print resources, such as books, magazines and newspapers, as well as multimedia materials such as CD-ROMs and online resources available through the  Internet.
This sort of conscious effort to connect the foreign language curriculum with other parts of students’ academic lives opens doors to new information and experiences that enrich the students’ academic and personal lives.  Just as these connections flow from other academic and personal domains into the foreign language classroom, they also originate in the foreign language classroom and spill into the rest of the curriculum, thereby adding unique insights to students’ broader educational experience.
The Connections Goal includes two standards.  The first encourages the building of connections between Korean and other disciplines. The second focuses on using Korean to acquire information pertinent to students’ particular interests and needs.  


Standard 3.1                       
Students reinforce and further their knowledge of other disciplines through 
the use of the Korean language.

Sample Progress Indicators, Grade 4 [LTKO 1A/1B]

·      Students demonstrate in Korean an understanding of basic concepts learned in other subject areas, such as mathematics (e.g., measurement in metric system), social studies (e.g., community resources such as police officers, fire fighters, and medical professionals), geography (e.g., mountains, bays, rivers, oceans), and science (e.g., weather, animals, plants).

·      Students comprehend children’s illustrated storybooks or age-appropriate visual media in Korean on topics they are studying in other subject areas.
Example:
신데렐라/콩쥐팥쥐

·      Students use Korean vocabulary to share or present simple facts learned from other disciplines such as history, science, and music.

Sample Progress Indicators, Grade 8 [LTKO 1B/1C]

·      Students demonstrate ability to discuss topics and concepts from other subject areas, including geographical features (e.g., precipitation cycle and volcanic activities), historical facts (e.g., state history and world wars), mathematical problems (e.g., averages and word problems), and scientific information (e.g., photosynthesis and blood types).

·      Students comprehend age-appropriate written and visual materials in Korean on topics they are studying in other subject areas.

·      Students report in Korean, orally and/or in writing, on topics they are studying in other classes.

Sample Progress Indicators, Grade 12 [LTKO 2ABC]

·      Students discuss in Korean the connections and relationships between Korean and world history (e.g., the Korean War and Korean immigration to the U.S).

·      Students obtain information in Korean through various sources (e.g., Internet, news media, library materials) on topics of other disciplines such as current events, art and music, and popular culture.

·      Students exchange information and opinions in Korean orally and/or in writing about topics being studied in other school subject areas, such as political, economic, and social issues (e.g., climate change, government structure, public health).

Sample Progress Indicators, Grade 16 [LTKO 3]

  • Students obtain and use information available in Korean related to their fields of study and topics of interest for research purposes.
  • Students use variety of Korean language resources to gather information related to their career of interest (e.g., medicine, law, journalism, education, engineering, entertainment).
  • Students use primary materials in Korean, English, and other languages to expand and enhance their research.
·     Students synthesize and evaluate information gathered in other disciplines in Korean to enhance theoretical concepts on topics on socio-cultural and historical issues (e.g., a study of gender roles in a sociology course through a discussion of changing gender roles in Korea).  


Standard 3.2                       
Students acquire information and recognize the distinctive viewpoints that are only available through Korean language and cultures.

Sample Progress Indicators, Grade 4 [LTKO 1A/1B]

·     Students read, listen to, and talk about works of children’s literature, such as folktales, poems,
     contemporary children’s stories created for native speakers of Korean.
    Example:
토끼전, 효자 호랑이, 몽실언니

·    Students listen, sing, and dance to Korean folksongs and children’s songs for native speakers of Korean.
Example: 아리랑, 산토끼, 고향의

Sample Progress Indicators, Grade 8 [LTKO 1B/1C]

·      Students discuss and understand unique aspects of Korean language and culture such as Sino-Korean words and their historical and cultural background.

·      Students read, listen to, and talk about works of Korean folktales, short stories, and historical novels written for young people.
Example: 선녀와 나무꾼, 금도끼 은도끼, 위인전 (이순신 장군, 세종대왕)

·      Students understand Korean perspectives as they are related to history, arts, science and technology.
Example:
거북선, 첨성대, 해시계, 풍속화 

Sample Progress Indicators, Grade 12 [LTKO 2ABC]

·      Students acquire information through authentic materials, such as books, newspapers, or the Internet, pertaining to Korean practices in politics and social and environmental issues (e.g., Korean recycling regulations, compulsory military service, air-raid drill).  

·      Students expand their understanding of young adulthood by learning about the characteristics of Korean and Korean-American youths and the issues and challenges they face.

Sample Progress Indicators, Grade 16 [LTKO 3]

  • Students evaluate and synthesize information from a variety of authentic Korean sources to identify and analyze distinct Korean perspectives on social and political issues in relation to other cultural perspectives.
  • Students develop and support a point of view on topics of personal interest incorporating information acquired from a variety of Korean-language sources to prepare reports in oral and/or written format.



Comparisons: Goal 4

The Comparisons Goal is intended to help students achieve greater cross-linguistic and cross-cultural awareness by explicitly utilizing the precious opportunity for comparison-based learning that comes with studying a foreign language. While exploring many similarities and differences between Korean and their language(s), they will develop a critical awareness of the distinguishing characteristics of the sound, writing, vocabulary, syntactic and pragmatic aspects of the languages involved. Their journey will cover topics such as the sound pattern of Korean and the way it is reflected in the Han’gŭl alphabet, contrasting it with more familiar writing systems; the stratified lexicon that consists of native Korean, Chinese-derived as well as recent loan words, and how this system might be compared to the lexicon of English (with its distinction between words of Anglo-Saxon origin and those of derived from Greco-Romance sources); word order freedoms and word order constraints, which typically vary from one language to the next; and finally Korean’s elaborate system of case particles and verb endings, which in many cases have no clearly identifiable counterparts in other languages. In addition, students will develop an awareness of language-culture interfaces as represented by differences in the subtle nuances of speech level choices and its implications for the relationships between speakers in different social situations.  In the realm of culture, they will gain a comparative and critical perspective by examining historical and contemporary Korean products, concepts, patterns of behavior, and social trends in the context of millennia-old East Asia, as well as in world history.


Standard 4.1                       
Students demonstrate an understanding of the nature of language through the comparisons of the Korean language and their own.

Sample Progress Indicators, Grade 4 [LTKO 1A/1B]

  • Students demonstrate an awareness of similarities and differences in the pronunciation of vowels and consonants of their own language and the Korean language.
    Example:
    초성과 종성(받침) 다른 발음, vs. r/l

  • Students recognize the similarities and differences in word orders between Korean and their own language.
    Example:
    피자를 먹어요 vs. I eat pizza.

  • Students recognize similarities and differences between Korean writing system, Han’gŭl, and their own writing system. 

  • Students understand the two number systems – native Korean and Sino-Korean – and proper usage of numeral counters.
    Example:
    사람, 마리, , , 오십

  • Students recognize loan words borrowed from English and other foreign languages.
    Example:
    바나나, 햄버거, 피자, 아르바이트,

  • Students demonstrate awareness of honorific forms in greetings and other situations, and compare expressions of politeness in Korean and their own language.
    Example:
    드세요 / 먹어, 감사합니다 / 고마워

  • Students are aware of collocations, idiomatic expressions and onomatopoeia in the Korean language as well as in their own.
    Example:
    농구를 하다, 친구를 사귀다, 꿀꿀, 깡총깡총

Sample Progress Indicators, Grade 8 [LTKO 1B/1C]

  • Students compare the organizational principle in the Korean language of general-to-specific, and macro-to-micro with that of their own language (e.g., dates, mailing address, surname-given name).

  • Students demonstrate awareness and compare the ways of expressing respect and communicating age and status differences in Korean (e.g., speech styles, honorific words, terms of address) to those of their own language.

  • Students recognize clause connectors in Korean and compare their meanings and usages to English clause connectors.
    Example: -
    어서, - vs. ‘and’ ‘so’; 는데, -지만 vs. ‘but’

  • Students demonstrate understanding of the use and functions of case particles as compared to English word order and prepositions.
    Example: -
    /, -/, - vs. 에서, -한테/에게/

  • Students understand that contextually recoverable elements can be omitted in Korean.
    Example: (
    나는 너를) 사랑해, (그거 나한테)  

Sample Progress Indicators, Grade 12 [LTKO 2ABC]

  • Students understand different use of politeness strategies in Korean using various indirect forms and compare them with those of their own language.
    Example:
    핸드폰 빌려 주세요 vs.핸드폰 빌려 주실 있으시겠어요? vs. 전화 통화할 있으면 좋겠는데요

  • Students demonstrate awareness of various written styles and degrees of formality using appropriate speech levels and forms for reporting speeches and marking speaker stance.
    Example: -
    습니다 vs. –, -다고 하다, -다고 생각하다, - 것이다

  • Students recognize the more pronounced distinction between written and colloquial registers in the use of grammatical markers.
    Example: -
    이랑 vs. –; 그렇지만 vs. 그러나, - 가지고 vs. –어서

  • Students analyze elements of the Korean language, such as time, tense, and aspects, and comparable linguistic element in English to understand various representations of events.
    Example: -
    - vs. –었었-, -, - 두다 vs. – 놓다, - 있다 vs. – 있다

  • Students analyze elements of complex sentence structure of the Korean language and comparable elements in English, and recognize different ways of indicating main and subordinate events

Sample Progress Indicators, Grade 16 [LTKO 3]

  • Students demonstrate awareness of the subtle nuances of speech level choices and its implications for the relationship between speakers in different social situations (e.g., switching from polite to intimate speech level or vice versa).
  • Students demonstrate their understanding and awareness of language variation and style differences based on regions, gender, age and status differences (e.g., dialects, net lingo).
  • Students recognize and understand conventions of written genres in Korean. (e.g., terms referring to the author, the reader, and other subjects, vocabulary and structural choices, rhetorical organization).
  • Students demonstrate the knowledge of the ways in which the Korean language has been influenced by the historical contact with Chinese, Japanese, and English (e.g., Sino-Korean vocabulary, loan words).

Standard 4.2          
Students demonstrate understanding of the concepts of culture through comparisons of Korean culture and their own.

Sample Progress Indicators, Grade 4 [LTKO 1A/1B]

  • Students identify interests and practices that they have in common with their Korean and Korean-American peers (e.g., video games, fast food, animation, popular culture, sports).

  • Students point out similarities and differences between Korean and their own cultures in regards to manners and daily routines in various situations (e.g., greetings, table manners, use of indoor space such as sitting on the floor vs. using chair, respect for elders).

  • Students demonstrate awareness of how gestures and expression through physical contacts differ in Korean culture and their own cultures (e.g., bowing vs. waving/ hugging, girls’ walking arm-in-arm with each other).

  • Students compare and contrast products of the Korean culture and their own (e.g., children’s songs, games, folktales, holiday celebrations, food).

Sample Progress Indicators, Grade 8 [LTKO 1B/1C]

  • Students compare and contrast patterns of behavior and social trends of Korean adolescents and their own manifested in school and recreational activities (e.g., interaction with teachers, school schedule, use of recess time, fashion, after-school curricular activities, social gatherings).

  • Students understand and compare significant seasonal holidays, celebrations and rituals and their underlying beliefs in Korean culture and their own cultures.
    Example:
    추석, 설날, 백일, 환갑, 어린이날, 스승의

  • Students examine why certain products are significant in Korean culture and how different products have gained prominence in other cultures. (e.g., royal burial site, kimch’i, refrigerator, metal chopsticks).

Sample Progress Indicators, Grade 12 [LTKO 2ABC]

  • Students explore and demonstrate how proverbs, sayings, and idiomatic expressions reflect one’s culture through examples from the Korean language and their own.
  • Students understand Korean cultural perspectives regarding familial and generational relationships manifested in respect for elders, importance of birth order, family responsibilities and duties, parental sacrifice for children and filial obligations.

  • Students compare and contrast the importance of national holidays and cultural treasures of Korea with their own culture.
    Example:
    광복절/ Independence Day, 한글날, Martin Luther King Day

  • Students compare and contrast the uses and functions of public facilities and services in Korea with their own culture (e.g., public transportation, market, hospitals, postal and delivery services).

Sample Progress Indicators, Grade 16 [LTKO 3]

  • Students analyze and discuss the roles and functions of major social institutions and infrastructure in Korea and contrast these with their own (e.g., education systems, religious institutions, types of retail shopping, and types of housing).
  • Students compare ways of networking in social groups and institutions such as schools and work places and understand the internal dynamics among the members.
    Example:
    학연, 지연, 혈연
  • Students compare and contrast the characteristics of mass media (e.g., film, TV, magazines, newspapers) in Korea and their own culture.
  • Students analyze and compare cultural perspectives as reflected in a variety of literary genres.
    Example:
    시조, , 판소리 소설, 단편소설, 소설
  • Students are aware of the Korean mimetic vocabulary that consists of sound-imitating and manner-symbolic words. 
  • Example: 멍멍, 캄캄, 소곤소곤, 반짝반짝, 주렁주렁, 빙글빙글

    Communities: Goal 5

    Learning Korean becomes more meaningful and motivating when students have opportunities to use, demonstrate, and further expand their language skills and cultural knowledge outside the classroom.  In many parts of the United States, opportunities to interact with Korean speakers abound, thanks to an increased number of Koreans who have arrived in the country, as immigrants or shorter-term visitors, to pursue interests in a variety of societal sectors including business and education.  Furthermore, given recent development in communication technology, print and electronic media resources in the Korean language are being made ever more accessible.  Taking advantage of these opportunities and resources, students should be encouraged to use their communication skills to broaden and maintain their participation in activities carried out in the language as well as to enrich their personal lives, as well as the lives of those around them. They can do so by reaching out to those who are not familiar with the Korean language and culture to share their interest and knowledge through prepared performances and presentations as well as more spontaneous interpersonal interactions. 

    Standard 5.1                       
    Students use Korean both within the school setting and beyond.

    Sample Progress Indicators, Grade 4 [LTKO 1A/1B]

    • Students communicate with peers from the Korean language community in person, via letters, e-mail, or internet written/audiovisual chatting on such topics as family, hobbies, and daily routines.

    • Students identify professions that require proficiency in Korean (e.g., travel agent, tour guide, teacher of Korean, interpreter, diplomat, doctor for Korean community, immigration official).

    • Students participate in age-appropriate role playing in Korean with peers that demonstrate understanding of Korean community (e.g., shopping, ordering in restaurants, making phone calls, playing house).

    • Students do show-and-tell about the Korean language and culture to their peers, parents, or community groups in English or Korean.

    • Students perform for a school or community celebration (e.g., Lunar New Year songs, fan dance, t’aekwŏndo demonstration).

    Sample Progress Indicators, Grade 8 [LTKO 1B/1C]

    • Students can discuss with members of the Korean language community their preferences and opinions on leisure activities and local events (e.g., vacation, Korea town festival).

    • Students can conduct interviews with members of the local community about how they use Korean in their professional and personal lives.

    • Students share information about the Korean language and culture with others in the community through presentations and performances in public (e.g., culture shows, storyboard-making, exhibits).

    • Students participate in activities that benefit the school or community, such as translating school announcements and activities for the Korean community.

    Sample Progress Indicators, Grade 12 [LTKO 2ABC]

    • Students meet and have discussions with members of the Korean language community about their intercultural experiences (e.g., student life in the U.S. vs. in Korea, cultural differences).

    • Students interview Korean visitors and members of the local Korean community about various aspects of family and society (e.g., roles in the family, youth culture, education).

    • Students enroll in summer camps and language programs in Korea or in Korean communities.

    • Students investigate the history of the local Korean community.

    • Students do internships or volunteer work at U.S-based Korean businesses.

    Sample Progress Indicators, Grade 16 [LTKO 3]

    • Students communicate orally or in writing with members of the Korean language community on topics such as social, economic, political, or historical issues at the local and global levels.
    • Students explore careers (e.g., internships, positions in local companies) that require proficiency in the Korean language and culture.
    • Students give a presentation in Korean on issues relevant to the local community (e.g., internship, study abroad programs, local elections, Korean language maintenance).
    • Students participate in community activities such as tutoring, translating and interpreting for social agencies, and acting as mentors for younger members of the Korean community.
    • Students participate in study abroad programs or explore job opportunities in Korea.

    Standard 5.2                       
    Students show evidence of becoming lifelong learners by using Korean for 
    personal enjoyment and enrichment.

    Sample Progress Indicators, Grade 4 [LTKO 1A/1B]

    • Students use Korean audio and visual materials for enjoyment (e.g., children’s TV shows and movies, cartoons, drama, K- pop).

    • Students plan real or imaginary trips to places that represent Korean culture (e.g., trips to Seoul or Korea towns in the U.S.A.).

    • Students attend or view via media Korean cultural events and social activities (dance concerts, festivals, parades, and plays).

    • Students enjoy Korean music, dance, sports and simple games.
      Example:
      태권도, 공기, 윷놀이, 가위바위보, 묵찌빠, 팽이 돌리기, 날리기, 씨름

    • Students will have opportunities to make Korean-speaking friends through language instructional activities.

    Sample Progress Indicators, Grade 8 [LTKO 1B/1C]

    • Students organize Korean cultural events and social activities.

    • Students engage in Korean activities for pleasure (e.g., reading age appropriate stories and cartoons on/off-line, listening to music, singing songs, playing musical instruments, and learning dances).

    • Students establish and/or maintain relationships with speakers of Korean through various means of communication (e.g., letters, email, social networking websites).

    Sample Progress Indicators, Grade 12 [LTKO 2ABC]

    • Students use Korean to obtain information on topics of personal interest and to advance knowledge of their Korean language, culture, and history.

    • Students engage in activities for personal enjoyment and growth (e.g., martial arts, calligraphy, playing traditional instruments, watching Korean film)

    • Students continue to utilize Korean websites to get news on current events and information pertaining to their personal interests.

    • Students participate in school and community projects which require proficiency in Korean.

    Sample Progress Indicators, Grade 16 [LTKO 3]

    • Students do research using the Korean language resources to enhance their academic and professional interest (e.g., thesis research, preparing a portfolio for job applications, internship opportunities).
    • Students establish and maintain personal and professional relationships with speakers of Korean both in speech and writing (e.g., the Internet, letters, telephone).
    • Students can participate in social, cultural, and intellectual activities related to Korea (e.g., film festivals, Korean studies conferences, lectures).
    • Students travel to Korea for leisure, education, and career purposes (e.g., study abroad, internships). 

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